1839 l'Oeuvre de la Miséricorde / Church of Carmel
Pierre-Eugène-Michel Vintras (1807-1875) claimed a great vision in which the archangel Michael appeared as well as the Holy Ghost, St.Joseph, and the Virgin Mary. In this vision (or "visions") the coming of the Paraclete was formally declared. Vintras also stated he was informed that he was the reincarnated prophet Elijah who would establish a new religious order to proclaim the coming of the Paraclete / the age of the holy ghost. It is also interesting to know that Vintras stated that he was told that Charles Naundorf was the ' true king of France'. It is generally known that several of the well-known French and Belgian occultists of the first half of the 20th century were "Naundorfists"
( see Chapter 7, "FUDOSI, 1934-1951" ). Another interesting statement I came across is that Vintras apparently had a 'mentor' of some kind, "a certain Madame Bouche, who lived in the Place St. Sulpice in Paris, and went under the name of Sister Salome". It is stated that mdm. Bouche, a 'visionary', was 'connected' to the Johannites.
Vintras founded the "Oeuvre de la Miséricorde" (the "Work of Mercy") to proclaim his vision. He traveled through the French countryside proclaiming his 'revelation' acquiring many followers, including Roman- and Irvingite Catholic Priests. His masses included visions of empty chalices filled with bleeding hosts, which apparently could remain perfectly preserved for many years.
The following information is for the greater part derived from a chapter of the book "History of Magic, Including a Clear, and Precise Exposition of its Procedure, Rites and Mysteries", written by Eliphas Lévi. Lévi gives an account of the events which led Vintras to believe he was 'elected' to proclaim the coming of the Paraclete. Lévi starts his chapter on Vintras (the chapter is titled "Hallucinations") with informing the reader of a sect which he labels as the "Saviours of Louis XVII" (Naundorf ; "The "Naundorf-movement" was build around a hypothesis that a certain Karl Wilhelm Naundorf, an adventurer, 'emerged' in Berlin in 1810 and claimed to be the son of the French King Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette"). Agents of the sect of the "Saviours of Louis XVII" were in Normandy, of which the pretended Louis XVII claimed to be Duke. This sect apparently had chosen Vintras to be their "instrument" of propaganda for the movement. Serge Hutin in his book "Les Gnostiques" (published in 1958) refers to the "Sauveurs de Louis XVII" as a "Society of Illuminates". It is generally asserted that the "Saviours of Louis XVII" started out as a strictly political organization which later turned into a quasi-mystical organization. Hutin also informs us that Naundorf founded a "Evangelical Catholic Church" within the bosom of the Roman-Catholic Church. Naundorf's doctrine was published in his "La Doctrine Celeste", which was published in 1839. Lévi continues with the story in which Vintras is visited by a 'beggar' who addresses him as Pierre Michel. A mysterious letter which is addressed to a Mme.de Generès in London, written and signed by M.Paul de Montfleury of Caen, is left behind by the stranger on Vintras' table. "The address not withstanding, this letter was intended to place before the Duke of Normandy the most important truths of our Holy Catholic, Apostolic and Roman Religion", thus Vintras. Vintras was devoted henceforth to Louis XVII. There were other communications and considered the letter an "epistle from heaven", addressing Vintras as Pierre Michel, the latter regards him as the Archangel Michael "by an association of ideas which is analogous to that of dreams", thus Lévi.
Lévi states that these miracles were witnessed by many well respected members of the community on several occasions. The Priests of the "Work of Mercy" celebrated the "Provictimal Sacrifice of Mary" in the oratory at Tilly-sur-Seulles. But opposition was bound to come. A former member of Vintras sect, Alexandre Geoffroi, published a pamphlet in 1851 ( according to A.E.Waite probably not written by Geoffroi) called "Le Prophète Vintras", accusing Eugène Vintras of i.a. homosexuality and of conducting secret masses at which all participants were naked etc. With regard to these masses a modern-day "fanatic" Christian group states:
Eugène Vintras died on December 7, 1875 in Lyon, leaving behind his "Pontifs Divins" who continued this underground church. According to Tau Charles Harmonius II (Cokinis) of the E.G.A. in his article -A Historical Brief of the Gnostic Catholic Ecclesia - " The movement of this hidden ecclesia persisted throughout the 19th century in France and drew many Grand Masters of the Arcane Orders, who also continued to move in the shadows of the ongoing mystic and esoteric movements of this fascinating period".
Most of the accounts on Vintras and his movement are of a "sensational nature" and it's rather impossible to write an objective text. I personally like Eliphas Lévi's general definition on groups like Vintras' Oeuvre de la Miséricorde / Church of Carmel ;
Another controversial character of the movement is the priest Joseph-Antoine Boullan (1824-1893), who is probably better known as the Abbé de Boullan. Boullan became 'active' in the 1850's when he founded the "Society for the Reparation of Souls" together with a former nun, Adele Chevalier. It is stated by the general sources that Boullan 'specialized' in "excorcising demons by unconvential means". After his conviction for fraud and serving his time in jail, at which he was suspended from his priestly duties, Boullan voluntarily presented himself at the Holy Office (i.e. the Inquisition) in Rome, which reversed its former decision. Boullan's doctrines were written in Rome at the time, and this notebook became known as the "Cahier Rose", which was later found by the novelist Joris Karl Huysmans after Boullan's death in 1893. The "Cahier Rose" apparently was locked away in the Vatican Library, after being described as a "shocking document". There are sources that claim that Boullan was 'protected by the Church' and infiltrated Vintras' cultus "with the sole object of bringing it down".
Boullan apparently met Vintras shortly before the latter's death in 1875. At the time Boullan claimed to be the reincarnated St.John the Baptist (but this proclamation was done after Vintras death, obviously). Boullan joined Vintras' "Church of Carmel" and became its leader when Vintras died. Shortly thereafter a schism ensued, because most of the members refused to accept Boullan's supremacy. A few followed Boullan's splintergroup which remained active until Boullan's death in 1893. Around 1889 Boullan's group was 'infiltrated' by Stanislas de Guaita and Oswald Wirth. De Guaita published an exposé, titled "Le Temple de Satan". This work belonged to De Guaita's "Essais de sciences maudites", which consisted of four publications, published between 1886 and 1897 ( see "1888 OKR+C"). It is generally assumed that Boullan's sect used a rite derived from a 18th century printing of "Cult des Goules". Boullan is portrayed in J.K.Huysman's "La Bas" as Dr.Johannes ( the novel "La Bas" can be found at: http://www.huysmans.org.uk/ ), "The French occultist would probably have remained, virtually unknown to the world at large if it wasn't for the work of J.K. Huymans "
The "Church of Carmel" was probably not a formal church, it appears that there was no strict hierarchy nor leadership. Vintras was no Patriarch nor Bishop of the 'Church'. Vintras did appointed several so-called "Pontifs Divins", with each 'Pontif' leading a group or community. According to Terje Dahl Bergerson (e-mail on the "Eglise Vintrasienne", July, 2000) men like the Abbé Boullan, Abbé Roca and Louis Van Haeckel were ordained Pontifs Divins in the "Elie Carmel ". After Vintras' death these men, and probably others, established their own communities on the model of the Carmelite Order. Several of these groups developed their own theology. "Some of those who followed Van Haeckel developed a rather darker view of things and apparently associated themselves with certain occultists who believed in the efficacy and correctness of Black Magic - they also developed a Luciferian Theology". Bergerson corrects "his" vision in a later email-correspondence by stating that the information (on Boullan, Roca en Van Haeckel) is probably unreliable by stating : "Luciferian Theology sounds omnious as well. In view of both the "heterodox" spirit of the specifically Gnostic esoteric orientation(s) (my view, not necessarely shared by any other contemporary Gnostic) and our modern ideals of Humanism, certain interpretations of the *myth* of Lucifer, or at least the biblical occurance (2 places??? Isaiah and Revelation?) of Lucifer and consequent speculation - wouldn´t be so "dark" by far. I now rather think that Haeckel and Boullean, like Huysmans and Levi on the outside, only contributed to the history of the order(s) in the capacity of stirring up public awareness towards the *existence* of these for posterity.
Furthermore Bergerson also mentions another descendent of Vintras' "Work of Mercy", John Kowalski (+1941), who continued Vintras' work in the "Order Maria Vitae". The Order caused as much controversy as Vintras had done before Kowalski, by introducing certain ideas as the abolition of celibacy among the Clergy, nuns and monks etc. The Maria Vitae Order has its own church, "Eglise Vielle Catholique Maria Vitae". The "Carmel Elie" affiliation descends from Feliksa Magdalen Kozlowskaya (+1912), who apparently 'initiated' Kowalski into the ideals and workings of the "Carmel Elie", which had its "headquarters" at the beginning of the 20th century in Warsaw, Poland, thus Terje Dahl Bergerson.
Finally Bergerson mentions another interesting
Polish "Gnostic" mystic, Maria Naglowska (+ early 1900's). Naglowska apparently
knew Pascal Beverly Randolph, with whom she had some 'working relationship'
of some kind. She was a charismatic mystic ('channeling' or 'attunement"
with the Virgin) who had some "connection to an underground dissenting
church, in the company of a 19th century Magus" . I can add
to Bergerson's information that In 1931 she eventually published Randolph's
"Magia Sexualis". She is also mentioned in the history of the Ordo Templi
Orientis Antiqua, where she allegedly studied Voodoo with some of Jean-Maine's
disciples from 1921 until 1930.
In 1804, Ledru, de Chevillon, de Saintot and Raymond Fabré-Palaprat, "restored" an Order of the Temple, based on the Larmenius' Charter of Transmission from 1324, the Manuscript statutes of 1705, and 'a journal of proceedings of the Order of the Temple'. These documents were presented by Ledru, a physician. Ledru had purchased these documents through the sale of the properties of the deceased Duke du Cosse-Brissac, a former Grand Master of the Societé d'Aloya which was established in Paris in 1789. The society claimed to be (or is said to be) a continuation of the medieval Templar Order. According to these documents, the Order was reestablished in 1705 by the Duke of Orleans, using the Charter of John Mark Larmenius, the alleged successor of Jacques De Molay ( the Charter has been examined by experts at the British Museum who say the inks used are not in accord with the alleged dates, the implication being that part of the document could be a forgery ). The whole history of the foundation of Fabré-Palaprats' "Ordre du Temple" can be found in numerous books written on the subject and all over the Internet, the main focus of this Chapter is the "Johannite Church" which became connected to the French neo-Templars. Also of interest are the masonic rites which were behind the formation of Fabré-Palaprat's Templar Order (of which the founders were masons).
The Masonic Rites behind the "Ordre du Temple"
The masonic scholar R.F.Gould in his "History of Freemasonry" (1902 edit.) suggests a possible connection between Fabré-Palaprat's Templar Order and several Johannite Lodges. Gould refers i.a. to "La Petite Resurrection des Templiers" ("Little Resurrection of Templars"), a licentious society established in 1682, and to a French masonic lodge named "Les Chevaliers de la Croix" which existed around the time of the foundation of the "Ordre du Temple" in 1804.
The connection to "La Petite Resurrection des Templiers" was made by several masonic scholars at the time who asserted that the "statutes" of 1705 were a forgery. According to these sources, these statues had been forged by the Jesuit Father Bonani and was "actually the resuscitation of a 1681 Society entitled the "Little Resurrection of Templars" and that it had as one of its members the learned Fenelon who converted Ramsay to orthodoxy", thus John Yarker in his book "Arcane Schools". Yarker continues stating that "in any case, if of 1705, the Charter proves the existence of a branch of Scottish Templars". Papus stated that "Templarism" always had existed as a "revolutionary force" in France. Since the mid-1750's the Templar Order had changed its activities and started to infiltrate masonry by creating the Higher Degrees, their influence within the masonic Lodges created an atmosphere which eventually 'fueled' the French Revolution, thus Papus :
"Victorious rebels thus founded the Grand Orient of France. So a contemporary Mason is able to write : " It is not excessive to say that the masonic revolution of 1773 was the prelude and the precursor of the Revolution of 1789." What must be well observed is the secret action of the Brothers of the Templar Rite. It is they who are the real fomentors of revolution, the others are only docile agents". ( source : "Martines de Pasqually", par Papus, président du Suprême Conseil de l'Ordre Martiniste, p. 144 ,1895 )
According to CESNUR's Massimo Introvigne at the end of the 18th century, at the time of the French Revolution, there was a controversy within the French masonic lodges concerning the subordination of 'Templarism' towards Freemasonry. There was a trend among masons to subordinate freemasonry towards Templarism. According to Introvigne the first "disagreement" originated in the Lodge of the "Chevaliers de la Croix" ("Knights of the Cross"). Introvigne also mentions the involvement of the "Chevaliers de la Croix" in the "discovery" of the Larmenius charter.
The earlier mentioned "Societé d'Aloya" is also mentioned by the Baron De Tschoudy in 1766. He refers to them as the "Freres de Aloya", a nickname for these French Knights of the "Fraternity of Jerusalem" . In the earlier statement on the Societé d'Aloya it is asserted that the society was established in 1789, which is in contradiction with the reference made by De Tschoudy. The archives of De Tschoudy were donated after his death to the Council of the "Chevaliers d'Orient", of which he had been an active member. The "Chevaliers d'Orient" or "Knights of the East" were probably founded around 1756. De Tschoudy is said to have been involved in the development of this rite. The rite experienced some troubles around 1762, which resulted in the establishment of the "Sovereign Council of the Knights of the East", which apparently united with its own offspring, the "Sovereign Council of Princes of the Royal Secret " in the same year. But it appears that the "Council of the Knights of the East" existed independantly from the "Emperors of the East and West" after 1762, as we'll see later. The constitutions of this system ("rite of Perfection" or "Heredom" or "Emperors of the East and West") are still recognized today as the groundwork of the Scottish Rite (15th Degree, Chevalier d’Orient ou de l’Epée 17th Degree, Chevalier d’Orient et d’Occident ). De Tschoudy also worked his own system in France during the 1760's, which was known as the "Adoniramite Masonry". In 1766 he published his most important work, "L'Etoile Flamboyante, ou la Societé des Franc-Maçons considerée sous tous les Aspects; i.e., "The Blazing Star, or the Society of Freemasons considered under Every Point of View". What is of interest here is that De Tschoudy's "Etoile Flamboyante" is the source of the story concerning the "Qadosh Fathers" or "the Knights of the Morning Star", otherwise known as the "Thebaid Solitaries", names for Gnostic sects that were connected to the Templars of the First crusades. It appears that De Tschoudy and his movement, through his writings and his influence on the development of certain Masonic rites, such as the 17th degree of Scottish Masonry which can be looked upon as an "esoteric Christian degree" with its use of the allegory of the Seven Seals, was one of the "invisible forces" behind the foundation of the "Ordre du Temple" .
In Peter Partner's book "Murdered Magicians : The Templars and Their Myths" , the writer also suggests a connection between the masonic Lodge "Chevaliers de la Croix" ("Knights of the Cross") and the new Templarism of Fabré-Palaprat. In 1806, one of its original members, Antoine Guillaume Chéreau publishes a book called "Explication de la Croix Philosophique, suivi de Explication de la Pierre Cubique" on the origins and significance of the (French) Rose-Croix. Chéreau was a member of the "Order of the Orient" and the "Chevaliers de la Croix". The Grade structure of the "Order of the Orient" (J.M. Ragon, a member of the Templar Order and famous French Masonic scholar, refers to to the "Order of the Orient" as "Rite d'Orient-Templier") apparently suggests that the neophytes came from the 18th Degree of the Scottish rite of the Grand Orient. Many members of this Lodge belonged to the highest French nobility.These rites were related, and maybe behind the formation of rites such as Fabré-Palaprat's Templar Order. Various sources (scholars, masonic historians etc.) claim that these rites were the "invisible" moving forces behind the more visible Templar Order, including its "Primitive Christian Church".
The "Order of the Temple" apparently officially
announced their independency from any masonic organization in- or around
1811, including their disconnection from the Grand Orient of France. But
it is asserted that their connection to the "Chevaliers de La Croix" remained,
and the 'official ' break with masonry is doubted by many.
The Evangelicon / Levitikon
The "Evangelicon" is a version of the Fourth Gospel, which is preceded by an introduction and a commentary which carries the name "Levitikon", said to have been written by a Greek monk of Athens, Nicephorus. Fabré-Palaprat's "Primitive Christian Church" is grounded on this (spurious?) Gospel of St.John. The story goes that Fabré-Palaprat purchased the vellum manuscript in a second-hand bookstall in Paris in 1814. Fabré-Palaprat adopted the contents of the manuscript as the future doctrine of the Templar Order. The manuscript consists of two parts :
In (probably) 1811 the Order published the "Manuel des Chevaliers de l'Ordre du Temple ", which was printed for private circulation amongst the members of the Templar Order. Fabré-Palaprat's desire to be recognized by the Grand Master of the Portuguese "Order of Christ" as the successor of De Molay was denied. Both publications ("Manuel des Chevaliers…" and "Levitikon" ) relate that the Templar Order never ceased to exist since the days of Jacques De Molay. Fabré-Palaprat composed from the manuscripts the Johannite Legend of the Templars. According to J.M.Ragon the Templars "learnt from the " initiates of the East " a certain Judaic doctrine which was attributed to St. John the Apostle ; therefore " they renounced the religion of St. Peter and became Johannites" ("Cours Philosophique et Interprétatif des Initiations anciennes et modernes", Ragon 1842).
Patrick Brunout, in his afterword to A.Guillaume Chéreau's "Explanation of the Philosophical Cross….", defines Fabré-Palaprat's doctrine of his "Primitive Christian Church" as a composition based on Palaprat's "revelation" of the secret Johannite Religion, combined with the "claimed Masonic tradition on Egyptian origins of the Secret Societies with the sconian thesis, the fable of the Disciplina Arcani, and the inherited anticleralism of the encyclopedists" .
Fabré-Palaprat claimed to be the heir to
the Apostolic Succession of John the Divine on which he finally founded
in 1828 the "Église Johannites des Crétiens Primitif" ("Johannite
Church of Primitive Christians"), although other sources claim a later
date, 1930, after the so-called July Revolution (the foundation of the
"Monarchy de Juillet", 1830-1848).
l'Église Johannites des Crétiens Primitif
The Neo-Templar Johannite Church had its premises in the Cour des Miracles, a former bottle shop near de Porte St.-Denis in Paris. The premise was used to locate their publications. The documents were dated from Magistropolis, according to a calendar which commenced with the foundation of the Templar order in 1118, the consigner being "the Apostolic Court of the Temple" . The "Johannite Church of Primitive Christians" was in fact a reorganization of Fabré-Palaprat's doctrine of the Levitikon and was also known as the "High Initiation". Fabré-Palaprat claimed he had received a legate from the East, and these unknown contacts apparently were associated with the Knights Templar and , through the Knights, with the "Johannites" of Judea.
It is said that the Église Johannites des Crétiens Primitif was co-founded by Palaprat with Mr.Mauviel, an ecclesiastic who had been consecrated in 1800 at Paris as Constitutional Bishop of Cayes in Haiti. Fabré-Palaprat had also been ordained a Priest by the Bishop of Lot (and also later by Mauviel). The Primate of the Johannite Church was Mgr.Machault. It was Machault who consecrated Mr.Chatel in the Johannite Church in 1831. According to Tau C.Harmonius in his article "a Historical brief of the G.C.E. pt.1" "Mgr. Chatel was later to receive the title "Bishop of the Gauls", creating the prominent but somewhat short-lived "Eglise Catholique Franchise, with Diocese in Paris, Brussels, and Nantes."
Ferdinand Chatel was a clergymen whose " Eglise Catholique Franchise" proclaimed freedom from Papal authority with a liturgy spoken in French. Other sources claim that Chatel's E.C.F. was founded by Chatel before his involvement with the Johannite-Church. "Chatel was seeking an authority to consecrate him as Bishop of this new Church, and he found it in the doctrines of Fabré-Palaprat's Levitikon and in the Neo-Templar chief's willingness to consecrate him 'Primate of the Gauls.' " The same source on Fabré-Palaprat :" He (Palaprat) needed, however, a 'Primate' of some kind, and found him in the advanced radical clergyman, Ferdinand Chatel",
(source"Timeline of the Authentic Trad."at http://www.geocities.com/antiqillum/TLSix-012.htm )
According to this source Chatel's French Catholic Church was established in "some former shop premises" at Montmartre in 1831. It is also stated that the relationship between Fabré-Palaprat and Chatel did not last long. As a matter of fact, it appears that Chatel was even expelled from the Neo-Templar Church, "The alliance between Chatel and Fabré-Palaprat did not last long. Chatel soon tired of his Masonic friends, was expelled with ignominy from the Neo-Templar or Johannite flock, and was 'tried' for heresy in a synod in which, in true Masonic fashion, the guilty heretic was represented by a rag-doll. This was not the end of the troubles of the new religion".
(" Timeline of the Authentic Tradition" ) After 1831 the name of Jean-Marie Ragon turns up as Count Jean-Marie de Venise, Primatial Vicar of the French Catholic Church.
Again, two sources in contradiction with each other ….
According to the masonic scholar Albert G.Mackey in his book "Lexicon of Freemasonry" (1871) the "Johannite doctrine" as propagated by Fabré-Palaprat caused a schism in the Templar Order. The Neo-Templar Order apparently started as a "perfectly orthodox" Order and when Fabré-Palaprat introduced the Johannite doctrine many members opposed to the "new religion". Fabré-Palaprat proclaimed himself the Sovereign Pontiff and Patriarch of the Johannite church and demanded all the Templars to accept the "new" faith.
"The consequence of this change of religious views was a schism in the Order. The orthodox party, however, appears to have been the stronger; and after the others had for a short time exhibited themselves as soi-disant priests in a Johannite church which they erected, and in which they publicly chanted the liturgy which they had composed, the church and the liturgy were given up, and they retired once more into the secrecy of the Order." ("Lexicon of Freemasonry", 773).
Apparently the Johannite church faced many difficulties and it seems that after Fabré-Palaprat's death in 1838, both his "Order of the Temple" and the Johannite church declined. But it is stated that although the orthodox Templar Order died out, the Johannite Church "continued its activities in secret". The small circle of French and Belgian noblemen that directed the order's activities continued the "Primitive Christian Church" in small selected groups. There are indications that out of these circles a group evolved in Belgium which would finally establish a lodge called "KVMRIS".
Lodge KVMRIS was Brussels' first and main Martinist Lodge, originally established in 1892. A possible lead which provides a connection between the remnants of Fabré-Palaprat's Templar Order and its Johannite Church and Lodge "KVMRIS" is a document published in 1840 by the "Ordre du Temple" in Brussels, Belgium. The document represented the "original" statutes of the Templar Convention which was held in Versailles in 1705 at which Philippe, Duc d'Orleans was appointed as Grand-Maitre of the "Ordre du Temple" ( Philippus, Dux Aurelianensis ).
These statutes were published by the "Imprimerie de l'Ordre du Temple" in Brussels, Belgium. The document can be found in the publication "Ordre des Chevaliers du Temple’ Bruxelles - Imprimerie de L’Ordre du Temple 1840, pg 58 - 60 ( Art.2 Charte de transmission ). The 'Charte de transmission' mentions Fabré-Palaprat as the 46th GM of the Templar Order:
( Introvigne contradicts the information on Chatel's expulsion from the Johannite Church given by "Timeline of the Authentic Tradition" ). It seems that the two branches, led by Count Jules de Moreton de Chabrillan (advocate of the Johannite-Church) and Admiral William Sydney Smith, reconciled in 1841 under Jean-Marie Raoul.
The book "Ordre des Chevaliers du Temple" also has a list of the successors of Fabré-Palaprat in which Raoul is mentioned as ' Grand Maitre' from 1840 untill 1850. A certain Vernois, who was appointed GM of the "Ordre du Temple", disbanded the Order. In 1892 Joséphin Péladan (1859-1918) receives the "regency" of the Neo-Templar Order, which was given to him by some surviving members. And here a connection is made with i.a. Lodge "KVMRIS". Péladan had founded in 1891 his own order, "Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et Esthetique du Temple et du Graal " ( see the Chapters on the "R+C de Toulouse" and the "OKR+C", as well as the forthcoming Chapter on Péladan's Rosicrucian Order). Several Belgian Martinists were also member of Péladan's "Ordre de la Rose-Croix et Catholique", among such men as Francis Vurgey, Nicolas Brossel, and Clement de Saint-Marcq. Brossel and Vurgey were directing Lodge "KVMRIS", the former being its President ( see "Manifestations of the M.O - the M.O Abroad" ). As mentioned in the chapter "the M.O. Abroad", "the Gnostic elements which influenced the works of such lodge-members as Clement de Saint-Marcq were part of the doctrine of the Johannite church". It is stated that Clement de Saint-Marcq was also a member of Jules Doinel's Gnostic Church.
There's not much information on Péladan's activities as 'Grand Maitre' of the "Ordre du Temple" and it seems that Péladan was much more interested in the activities of his own "Rosicrucian Order" then in the development of the Neo-Templar Order. The book "Ordre des Chevaliers du Temple" reports an international Templar Congress held in Brussels in 1894. With the exception of the English branch of the Templars all other European Templar Orders were represented on the Convention of Brussels. It was decided to establish an "International Secretariat" under the direction of the leaders of Lodge "KVMRIS", Brossel and Vurgey. They were later succeeded by Selliers de Moranville, Georges le Clément de Saint-Marcq, Georges le Roy van Daems, Oscar Jamar, Arthur van Hecke, Carlos Mosias and Joseph Daems. The next date which is given in the book is the date of the foundation of the "Ordre souverain et militaire du Temple de Jérusalem" ( OSMTJ ) or ‘Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem’ ( SMOTJ ) or ‘Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani ' in 1932 …
As reported before, Bricaud's succession of the Johannite Templar Gnostic Church was received from B.Clément, who was a member of Bricaud's Universal Gnostic Church. I could find no information on Clément's affiliation with the Neo-Templar Johannite Church. But it appears that various (older) members of the French mystic and occult arcane orders (Martinist movement, Memphis-Misraim, Péladan's R+C etc.) were connected to the various 'underground churches' existing in France at the time. The Templar lineage is confirmed by several sources, Koenig states i.a. that Papus' G.I.D.E.E. ( French and Belgian branch )also carried a line of succession of Fabré-Palaprat's "Ordre du Temple". According to Bishop Bertil Persson of the St.Ephraim Institute the lineage of the Johannite Church in which Fabré-Palaprat was ordained can be traced back to 1726. Bishop Persson keeps the world's largest and most accurate record of independent bishops. The following "line of succession" represents the lineage of the Franco-Haitian Gnostic Church;
the Syro-Jacobite Church of Antioch - The Consecration of Jean Bricaud, July 21, 1913
Jean Bricaud, Évêques-Primat (Primary Bishop) and member of the "Suprème Conseil du Haut Synode" (High Synod) of the "Église Gnostique Universelle" received a new episcopal consecration in 1913 which would finally complete the connection to the Martinist Order because of its validity as recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. Bricaud had met Louis-Marie-François Giraud (1876-1950) with whom he became friendly. Giraud was a disciple of Abbé Julio ( Julien-Ernest Houssay, 1844-1912), a former Catholic Priest, Occultist and "faith-healer" who had consecrated Giraud in 1911. Giraud apparently stated that he considered the 'Eglise Gnostique Universelle' to be a continuation of the Gallican Church. It appears that it was especially Charles Détre (Téder) who exerted pressure on Papus to 'officially' connect the "Eglise Gnostique Universelle" to the Martinist Order. Abbé Julio was concecrated as a Bishop of the "Eglise Catholique Libre de France" on December 4, 1904, by Mgr.Paolo Miraglia, a Bishop of the "Eglise Catholique Indépendante d'Italie". Paolo Miraglia-Gulatti, also a former catholic priest, had been consecrated as an "Old Catholic Bishop of Italy" by Mgr. Vilatte in 1900 "with the title of Bishop of Piacenza".
Joseph René Vilatte held a lineage into the "Old Catholic Church of Utrecht" and a lineage into the Syro-Jacobite "Church of Antioch". Bricaud's consecration into the old Catholic rites was important for the E.G.U. because it provided "a valid and apostolic episcopal succession, which was recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as valid but 'illicit' (source : T.Apyrion).
The consecration into the Church of Antioch provided
the Gnostic Church of the French Martinists the apostolic authority to
administer the Christian sacraments. Many members of the M*O* of Papus
were of the Catholic faith, and being a Martinist or member of any secret
society ment excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church. Assurance
of receiving the sacraments was achieved through the consecration into
a valid rite. Both Giraud and Julio were in close communion with the Gnostic
Churches of France as well as with the Arcane Orders and Societies of their
time. Abbé Julio is primary responsible for the occult infusion
into the Apostolic succession. It was Abbé Julio, through Giraud,
who gave the Apostolic filiation to Bricaud's Gnostic Church, "Église
Joseph-Rene Vilatte ( Mar Timotheos, 1854-1929 )
The story of Vilatte is well known and all the written documentation on Vilatte is almost unanimous.. Therefore I'll quote from T.Apiryon's text "History of the G.C.C" ("the E.G.U. and the Antioch Succession") presenting the historical facts on Vilatte's ecclesiastical career :
"Vilatte was a Parisian who had emigrated to America early in life. He was a lifelong religious enthusiast, but he was unable to find fulfillment within the strictures of the Roman Catholic Church; so, in America, he began a quest for a religious environment more congenial to his personality and ambitions. He wandered from sect to sect, serving for a time as a Congregationalist minister, later being ordained to the priesthood within the schismatic "Old Catholic" sect. He ultimately obtained episcopal consecration in 1892 at the hands of Bishop Antonio Francisco-Xavier Alvarez (Mar Julius I), Bishop of the Syrian Jacobite Orthodox Church and Metropolitan of the Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon, Goa and India, who had in turn received consecration from Ignatius Peter III, "Peter the Humble," Jacobite Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch" ( source : http://www.hermetic.com/sabazius/history_egc.htm ). Apparently, Vilatte's consecrations and the Orders he founded were not recognized by the Jacobite Church, the Syrian-Antiochan Church or the Roman Catholic Church (source; Koenig ).
Abbé Julio ( Julien-Ernest Houssay ), 1844 - 1912
The Abbot had been a Catholic Priest until 1885, when he became a priest of the Gallican Church of France. In 1870 the Abbot becomes a national hero of the French-Prussian War, when Abbé Julio saved the lives of ten wounded men by returning them to the French lines under enemy fire, on the same night he guids twenty lost soldiers, through enemy lines after dark, to a safe haven.
After serving the Roman-Catholic Church as a vicar in several French villages he receives a position as a vicar in Paris at the "Eglise Saint-Joseph de Paris". His social ideas and his involvement in the local community is valued by the parishioners, but these ideas were certainly not appreciated by the superiors of Abbé Julio. The Abbot also attacked the "perversion" of the Roman-Catholic Clergy at the times, a subject which he addressed to Cardinal Richard on several occasions. "The French Catholic Church of the last century was an inwardly broken vessel. In wishing to crush out the so-called ‘Jansenist’ movement of the previous century and a half, the ecclesiastical authorities had attacked the very traits of the personalities of that group, which included even the great Pascal" (Abbot George Burke from his novel "Way of the Chalice"). In Robert Ambelain's booklet "Abbe Julio , Sa Vie, Sa Oeuvre, Sa Doctrine" (p.15) the Abbot recounts one of these occasions, "a conversation with Mgr Richard which took place on the 1st March 1885. Mgr Richard was threatening Julio with expulsion from Paris to a backwater parish in rural France". In the context of the Abbot's recollection he also mentions Fabre des Essarts (Synesius) as being Julio's "direct disciple", as stated in one of the preceding chapters. On February 28th , 1885 the reputation of Abbé Julio is disgraced when he's accused of swindle by two "associates" of Cardinal Richard. His career within the Roman-Catholic Church is over and he leaves the Church. The following years he's involved with the publication of several religious journals and reviews, such as "La Tribune de Clergé", "L'Ami de L'Humanité", and "La Tribune Populaire, organe de la démocratie religieuse et de la défense du clergé" in which his dreams of a really free Catholic Church are propagated.
At the end of the 1880's Abbé Julio meets Jean Sempé, a well known "faith-healer" or as the French put it, a "guérisseur mystique extraordinaire" who uses the "seule prière" (the 'sole prayer'). Jean Sempé teaches the Abbot that "Christ gave to his disciples the capacity to impose their hands on their patients" to cure their diseases. Abbé Julio "received from Jean Sempe the method of uniting with archetypes from Holy Scripture before saying certain prayers , in order to consecrate such things as wine, salt water and oil to be used in combat with the forces of darkness" (source: "Abbe Julio , Sa Vie, Sa Oeuvre, Sa Doctrine ", R.Ambelain publ. 1981). Jean Sempé died in 1892 and his "prayers" were published in 1896 as Abbé Julio's "Prieres Merveilleuses pour la guerison de toutes les Malades Phisiques et Morales" (signe mystérieux de Jean Sempé). According to Abbé Julio's book Jean Sempé had "hundreds of miraculous cures to his credit, obtained by means of these prayers". The prayers published in the Abbot's book had multiple applications, prepared for both physical- as mental diseases. The Abbot's most famous publication is "Livre des Secrets Merveilleux"("Book of Marvellous Secrecies").
Abbé Julio studied religion and the position of the Church from the prospect of Occultism. He studied the "occult value" of the Psalms and their effect on the human being. According to Abbé Julio all diseases, including mental diseases, can be treated through the employment of the Psalms resulting in "reharmonisation". It appears that his doctrines were based on the teachings of the Gnostic Origen (185-224 AD), who was one of the founders of the Catholic Church.
It appears that the Abbot had established a chapel in Paris where he healed, blessed, exorcised, his motto being ‘Nothing Hidden That Will Not Be Made Known'. It is stated that he was greatly persecuted by the authorities. Around the year 1900 Abbé Julio published a book called "les véritables pentacles et prières" ("Authentic Pentacles and Prayers"). He associated and connected the prayers with concrete symbols, pentacles, "abstract ideas translated into concrete symbols". The Pentacle 'materializes' the thought, the 'word', and 'action', the three phases of any creation
(the pentacles designed by Abbé
Julio and published in his book "les véritables pentacles et prières"
can be found at : http://perso.wanadoo.fr/laurent.dubec/julio1.htm
circa 1900, Abbe Julio's "Authentic Pentacles and Prayers"
In 1901 the Abbot is visited by Joseph-René Vilatte (1854-1929) at is home in Fontenay. Vilatte was a Bishop of the Syro-Jacobite Church of Antioch. A few years later the Abbot would become one of Vilatte's successors in the episcopate. On December 4th , 1904 Abbé Julio was consecrated as a Bishop of the "Eglise Catholique Libre de France" by Mgr.Paolo Miraglia, who had received his consecration by Vilatte in 1900. He also founds another review, "L'Etincielle Religieuse, Libérale et Sociale", organe de l'union des Eglises. In 1904 the Abbot is appointed the head of the "Eglise Catholique Libre de France". In 1907 Vilatte founds the "Eglise Catholique Francaise" in Paris, the church was inherited from Vilatte by Abbe Julio. The Eglise Catholique Francaise is an Occult-Gnostic church. The Abbot's dream of a really free catholic Church is carried on after his death in 1912 by his direct successor in the episcopate, Mgr.Giraud. Abbé Julio appoints Mgr.Giraud officially as his successor on June 21, 1911.
It is generally stated that Abbé Julio has never been a member of any occult organization, order, or society. Although he was in 'close communion' with many members of such organizations as Papus' Martinist Order, he has never been a member of the Martinist Order. He admired and respected a man like Maitre Philippe (Philippe Nizier). In his (fictitious) novel "Way of the Chalice" Abbot George Burke, co-founder of the Colorado-based "Rose-Croix Martinist Order", indicates at the existence of a 'Theurgical Fraternity" founded by Abbé Julio. But, according to George Burke, it did not flourish. Of course Burke's novel is fiction but several successors of Abbé Julio claim that the Abbot indeed was involved in the establishment of some kind of Occult Fraternity. One of Abbé Julio's successors living today, a Mgr Nicholas from Paris, does make such a claim. Mgr Nicholas leads the "Ordre des chevaliers Francs-maçons Elus Coens de l'Universelle Fraternité", the "Order of Knights Elus Cohen of French Masonry and the Universal Fraternity". According to Mgr Nicholas Abbé Julio received a "mission" of certain S.I.'s to "revitalize" the "Universal Fraternity" with the (Theurgical) Rèau-Croix Degreeof the Elus-Cohen. Nicholas states that the original Elus-Cohen of De Pasqually aimed at being a 'universal' rite. However its base was Judeo-Christian. He furthermore explains that although Abbé Julio called upon all spiritual and religious tendencies, he especially aimed at the Christian current.
This Masonic group does not celebrate the resurrection of a Master architect , but of Lazarus resurrected by Christ. According to Mgr.Nicholas since the days of Abbé Julio his successors continued the aims and goals of the "Universal Fraternity", L'universelle Fraternité is constituted as an association "conform the Law of 1901"(orig.text
"L'universelle Fraternité est constituée en Association conformément à la Loi de 1901).
Of course there's no documental proof of Mgr Nicholas
assertions … His small group consists of priests and deacons of various
Louis-Marie François Giraud, 1876 - 1950
Giraud "ascended to the Primacy of the Gallican National Catholic Church
of France" on June 21, 1911, when he was consecrated by Abbé Julio
(Mar Julio) as Archbishop in the Old Catholic Chapel at Aire, near Geneva,
Switzerland. Mgr. Giraud, a former Cistercian / Trappist monk, became a
Deacon on March 19, 1907, and a Priest on June 21 of the same year under
the jurisdiction of Mgr Joseph-Rene Vilatte. In 1928 Giraud, a Gallican
bishop and archbishop of Almyre at the time, was appointed as "Patriarch
of the Gallican Church". This was done to give the small Gallican Church
some authority towards the other patriarchal seats of Christendom. The
Gallican Church strived towards a federation of Western Churches under
the banner of the "Union des Eglises Catholiques et Orthodoxes d'Occident",
something which only succeeded partially. The Gallican Church was closely
associated with the "Eglise Orthodoxe Chaldéenne" and the "Eglise
Arménienne de France" at the time.In 1936 (January 5th)
Giraud consecrated Constant Chevillon (Tau Harmonius, 1880-1944) as a Bishop
into the "St Pierre Antioche-Église Syrienne". As said earlier on,
both Abbé Julio and Giraud always were in close communion with many
prominent occultists of their time.
E.G.U. 1912 - 1918
Jean "Joanny" Bricaud ( Tau Jean II ) was consecrated by Giraud in 1913 in the Gallican Church at Saint-Amand. Bricaud consecrated Papus probably shortly after his own consecration, and this time Papus received a validly 'catholic' consecration. At the time of Bricaud's consecration he held several titles within Papus' organizations, as a matter of fact Bricaud, in close association with Charles Détre (Téder ), became very powerful within Papus' organization. After 1909 he held the following titles :
Bricaud was, like many Martinists at the time, also a disciple of "Le Maitre Philippe". Bricaud studied "the rites of Willermoz and Pernety, the Elus Cohen, Stricte Observance, les Philalèthes, and les Philadelphes. In 1911 he helped Téder and Edouard Blitz (1) in developing "new ideas" with relation to the recruitment of members. In 1914 Bricaud established a 'Martinist movement' based on the ideas of 1911. These ideas were based on the rules of Willermoz and his successor, Antoine Pont (Blitz was Pont's successor in the U.S.A., Téder and Fugairon were the successors in France), which were the rules of the C.B.C.S., 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte', which included the rites of the Elus Cohen. In 1914 Téder appointed Bricaud Légat of the Order for the provence of Lyon (Bricaud lived in Lyon)". Source: Chapter "The Martinist Rituals", "O.M. de Papus 1891-1916". According to Bishop Bertil Persson of the St.Ephraim Institute in Stockholm, Bricaud was also reconsecrated by Albert Rene Laurain de Lignieres on May 20th, 1914. Laurain de Lignieres was a Bishop ('Vilatte-succession') in the Église Catholique Gallicane. Bricaud already received a consecration into the 'Vilatte-succession' in 1913 by Giraud, so the question remains why Bricaud received another consecration into the same succession, the "Apostolic Succession of the Independent Evangelical Catholic Church from the Apostolic See of Saint peter at Antioch through the Malankara (Malabar) Orthodox Church of India"...
After Papus' death in 1916, Charles Henri Détre
(Téder) succeeded Papus as head of the Martinist Order, the French
Memphis-Misraim Rite, and the French section of the O.T.O. Téder
died in 1918 and was succeeded by Jean "Joanny" Bricaud, who redirected
the whole organization towards Lyon.
The Gnostic Church, Interbellum 1919 - 1939
The "Eveque Primat de France" and "Souv. Patriarche de l'Eglise Gnostique Universelle", Jean "Joanny" Bricaud succeeded Téder as head of the Martinist Order at the latter's death in 1918. The treaty of 1911 which recognized the E.G.U. as being the "official Church" of the Martinist Order, had been ratified by a handwritten document issued on January 11 1917. The document was signed by Téder on behalf of the "Ordre Martiniste" and Bricaud on behalf of the E.G.U.
As described in the chapter on the 'Ordre Martiniste de Lyon' Téder "wanted to restrict membership into the order strictly for Master-Masons".
The Martinist Order Téder had in mind "was much more focused upon the Theurgy of Martinez de Pasqually and High Degree Masonry". Jean Bricaud "took the order even closer to a Masonic basis. Female Martinists suddenly found themselves cut off from Martinist activity, as they once knew it…"
(see chapter "1916 Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste/ L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon").
The whole story has already been told in the preceding series on Martinism, the Martinist Order(s), and the F.U.D.O.S.I. which can be found at http://www.geocities.com/roggemansmarcel/milkomartinisme.htm
But what is of importance with regard to the "Église Gnostique Universelle", E.G.U. , is the fact that Bricaud's "reorganizations" also caused all kinds of problems within Bricaud's Gnostic Church.
On May 5, 1918, Jean Bricaud / Bishop Tau Jean II consecrated Victor Blanchard ( member of the "Suprême Conseil de l 'Ordre Martiniste" and a "Venerable of Lodge Melchissédek no.208" ) as a Bishop of the E.G.U. , carrying the name of "Tau Targelius".
On September 18th 1919, a synod of the E.G.U. was held at Lyons where Bricaud (see Bricaud's Annales Initiatiques, Lyons, 1920, 1, i, p.5) appointed Theodor Reuss as a 'Gnostic legate for Switzerland ' ("légat Gnostique pour la Suisse").
Reuss had made Bricaud "Délegué Générale" of the O.T.O. for France nine days earlier, on September 9th , 1919. Reuss also granted a warrant to establish the French Sovereign Sanctuary of the MM [33°, 90°, 96°]. On the 30th of September Bricaud activated the French foundation of a "Supreme Grand Council of Confederated Rites, Early Grand Scottish Rite, Memphis and Misraim, Royal Order of Scotland". As stated earlier on, Papus apparently granted Reuss episcopal and primatial authority in the "Église Catholique Gnostique", after receiving authority in the M.'.M.'. Rites from Reuss.
Reuss referred to his German Gnostic Church as the "Gnostische Katholische Kirche" ( G.K.K. ). Koenig states (in "Gnostics & Templars" at http://www.cyberlink.ch/~koenig/bishops.htm ) that Reuss described himself in the postscript of his translation of Crowley's Gnostic Mass in 1917, as "present Head of the Gnostic Neo-Christians (…) Sovereign Patriarch and Primate of the Gnostic Church, and at the same time as only 'Gnostic Legate of the Universal Gnostic Church of France for Switzerland' (the headquarters of Reuss' O.T.O. was in Switzerland at the time).
Yet in the same breath he spoke of the latter as identical with the former, quite why remains uncertain", thus Peter R.Koenig. More on Reuss and his successors will be discussed in a separate chapter.
Around the time (1919) Blanchard's attitude to Bricaud radically changed.
He, like many Martinists at the time in France and abroad, did not accept Bricaud's alleged Grand Mastership of the Martinist Order. Blanchard severed all ties with Bricaud and left to establish his own Martinist Order ( Which Blanchard founded in 1921, see "Manifestations of the Martinist Order, O*M*& Synarchy" ).
It is generally asserted that Blanchard under his own authority (Blanchard was Bricaud's direct successor ) consecrated a number of Gnostic Bishops, including Charles A.Horwarth and Roger Ménard ( Tau Eon II ).
Up to 1926 there existed in France the "Église Gnostique de France" and Bricaud's "Église Gnostique Universelle". In 1917 Synésius had passed away and it seems that none of the possible candidates to succeed Synésius were very eager to become the Patriarch of the "E.G. de France" (see The "Église Gnostique de France" after 1917 ).
Patrice Genty (Basilide) is said to have been charged to "re-awaken the E.G. de France" in 1921. Genty was apparently reconsecrated "sub-conditione" by Horwarth after 1922 (receiving the lineage from Bricaud-Blanchard etc.). It is stated that Genty put the E.G. de France to rest in 1926. As described in the chapter "E.G. de France after 1917" Le Forestier states in his book "L'Occultisme en France aux XIXème et XXème siècles, L'Église Gnostique" that in 1926 Genty was "elevated to the Patriarchate" in a probable supernatural context ( in other words : "a Vision" ), which indicates a continuation of a Gnostic Church under Genty / Basilide(s).
The sources are rather indistinct with regard to the activities of the successors of Synésius. Several sources indicate that the Église Gnostique de France had been put to rest by Genty in 1926.
T.Apyrion in his "History of the Gnostic Catholic Church" states that Genty had disbanded Synésius' Gnostic Church of France "in favour of Jean Bricaud's Église Gnostique Universelle". I doubt that Patrice Genty disbanded Synésius' branch in favour of Bricaud's branch.
One of the affiliated bodies to the F.U.D.O.S.I. was the "Eglise Gnostique Universelle", but this Church was certainly not Bricaud's E.G. Universelle. The E.G.U. of the F.U.D.O.S.I. was led by Tau Bardesane, Lucien Chamuel.
According to Le Forrestier's book "L'Occultisme en France…" there is reason to believe that "a discord if not a rivalry existed within this branch of the Gnostic tree". Not much is known about this episod but it appears that Lucien Chamuel, who was a member of the premier Sacred Synod of the Gnostic Ecclesia of the 1890's, had founded his own Church.
In Le Forrestier's book Lucien Chamuel is referred to as "President Elect of the High Synod". Chamuel / Bardesane was represented by Blanchard / Targelius as "head of the Gnostic Church" at the Convent at Brussels on August 14, 1934 (FUDOSI 1934-1951 http://www.geocities.com/roggemansmarcel/milko.htm)
The developments and activities of the Gnostic branches between 1925 and 1940 besides Bricaud's E.G.U. are rather obscure and a lot is based on speculations.
After 1945 it is almost impossible to form a coherent picture of the various Gnostic churches and their affiliations.
Up to the 1930's the following "genealogical tree"
of the French "Ecclesia Gnostica" (starting with Doinel's 'E.G. Universelle
Catholique' ) emerges (next page) :
Next Page ;
genealogical tree of French Gnostic Churches, 1890 - 1939
Église Gnostique (1890, Jules Doinel - Patriarch 1890-1895)
(1906, constitution Synésius) î
Église Catholique Gnostique (1907,Bricaud)
Église Gnostique , Jules Doinel.
Sanctuary Interior of the Carmel of Elie, Eugène Vintras.
Église Johannites des Crétiens Primitif , Fabré-Palaprat.
Église Gnostique Universelle (1908)
"Die Gnostische Katholische Kirche"
Incorporated within O.T.O.
-1908 ?, Reuss' Gnostic Catholic Church-
-1919 Bricaud made Reuss "Légat Gnostique ê pour Suisse" - Crowley's E.G.C. derives its ê authority from Reuss' G.K.K.
1917 Death of Synésius
Patriarch 1896-1917 1918, Consecration Victor Blanchard (Bricaud)
( Tau Targelius )
1917-1926 êCharles Horwath (?)
êêíKrumm-Heller in 1930
1932 Église Gnostique Universelle + Ancient Gnostic Church of Eulisis+
Lucien Chamuel's E.G.U. íêrepr. by Blanchard in 1934 í
at F.U.D.O.S.I. Congress, Brussels í
1934 Death of Bricaud
succeeded by Constant Chevillon
1936- Chevillon consecrated by Giraudí
1938 Consecration of Clymer (F.R.C.)
F.U.D.O.F.S.I. í1939, Consecration of
1st meeting, Paris, feb.1939 Krumm-Heller (G.K.K.)
the "Gnostic Delegates" abroad, 1908 - 1930
The "tree" on the previous page does not include all the branches, and is almost entirely limited to the situation in France with the exception of the branches of Theodor Reuss (O.T.O., Germany), Krumm-Heller (F.R.A., South-America) and the branch of the "mythical" Lucien-François Jean-Maine (1869-1960). The activities of several other foreign Gnostic delegates which were at one time appointed by Papus, are also not included in the "genealogical tree". They are not included simply because I do not have any information on them other then that they were appointed "delegate" !
For instance, Czeslaw Czynski/"Punar Bhava", who was appointed in 1913 by Papus as "Legat de L'Eglise Gnostique Universelle en Russie". Dr. Czinski was already appointed back in 1910 as "Sovereign Delegate" of the Russian Martinist Order. His appointment in 1913 as a Legate of the E.G.U. in Russia is a possible indication of a Gnostic Church existing in Russia at the time.
And what about Frosini, who was appointed in 1912, together with Téder, as "legat gnostique de l'Eglise Gnostique Universelle" ?
In 1910 Frosini was involved in the establishment (together with i.a. Reghini) of a Martinist Lodge in Florence. But again, I have no other documentation at my disposal which indicates any activities of an "active" branch of the E.G.U. in Italy. The Martinist Order (see "Manifestations of the M.O.- Italy" ) in Italy was led in 1918 by Alexander Sacchi (Sinesius S::I::, the president of the Gran Consiglio Italico della Gran Loggia Martinista nazionale). The schism in France also caused a schism in Italy, a part of the Italian Martinists remained loyal to the Martinist Order of Lyon (Bricaud) and were headed by Vicenze Soro. Because of the connection of the Gnostic Church with the Martinist Order it is quite possible that the Italian Martinists were connected to the E.G.U. Massimo Introvigne refers in one of his articles on the Cesnur website to the Chiesa Gnostica d’Italia, which apparently also had strong ties to Italian Masonry, but the article does not mention any dates. I personally think that the "Chiesa Gnostica d'Italia" has a 'line of succession' which comes from Brunelli. Francesco Brunelli was a primate of the "Gnostica Apostolica Universale", the 'Univeral Gnostic Apostolic Church' (see "Manifestations of the Martinist Order - Italy") The "Line of succession" of Brunelli :
Synésius also mentions "a small, but active" branch of the church which was active in Belgium at the time. It could be, and this is just a speculation, that Synésius referred to the group of Clément de Saint-Marcq who resided in Antwerp at the time. According to a Spanish article titled "La Iglesia Catolica Gnostica- unos curiosos obispos occultistas" my speculation is proven wrong, because the article indicates that Clément de Saint-Marcq was, at the time of his publication of "L'Eucharistie" in 1906, a member of the Église Catholique Gnostique. To my knowledge the publication of "L'Eucharistie" is dated 1907 (Pangenetor edition, Antwerp 1907) which is also the "year of birth" of the E.C.G. of Bricaud, Papus etc. Whatever church he belonged to, Clément de Saint-Marcq was a "Gnostic" and a former member of lodge "KVMRIS" as I've stated before ( i.a. "O.M. de Papus - the M.O. Abroad" ), and later became the head of the Martinist Lodge "VISCVM" in Antwerp. De Saint-Marq was a member of Doinel's Gnostic Church in the 1890's.
His publication of "L'Eucharistie" was and still is looked upon as a controversial interpretation of the meaning of the Catholic concept of the Eucharist. Clément de Saint-Marcq's intention was to give a "scientific and rational" explanation of the concept of the "Union with the mystical body of Christ". According to Clément de Saint-Marcq the keyword to all the evangelical references to the mystical union is "semen" ; " the procreative semen is a comestible material, semi-solid, semi-liquid, which therefore can be eaten or drunk; it is at once the flesh and the blood of the man who provides it, because in it is found the germ of his possible descendance, which is the flesh of his flesh and the fruit of his blood. It is therefore under the auspices of sperm that the flesh of Jesus Christ was able truly to be a nourishment and his blood a beverage", thus Clément de Saint-Marcq (Translated by Susanne Williams, Rose A Starr and Joe Collins, 1998 , published at P.R.Koenig's website ).
In a later edition of the original "pangenetor-edition" the introduction was written by Jean Mallinger (see "F.U.D.O.S.I. 1934-1951"). Mallinger refers to Clément de Saint-Marcq as "a former Commander of the Place Forte d'Anvers (The Fortification of Antwerp) and director of an important spiritualist society" ( ? ). According to Theodor Reuss Saint-Marcq's publication "contained the ultimate secret of the O.T.O.", which was, as Peter R.Koenig puts it,"the more sperm you eat, the more the manifestation of the Christ takes place within you: no women necessary for that".
( "Gnostic Catholic Churches" at http://www.cyberlink.ch/~koenig/church.htm )
As we've seen sofar, the various Gnostic Patriarchs of France appointed numerous "official delegates" of their Gnostic Churches (E.G.U.-E.G. de France) as representatives in several countries in Europe and America (North- and South America) of the "mother-church" in France. But I suspect that in most of the cases these delegates represented a congregation which numbered just a handful of "local neo-Gnostics"…